10-K
2019FY--12-31falseWATSCO INC0000105016FLFL
Table of Contents
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM
10-K
 
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019
or
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the Transition Period from
                
to
                
Commission File Number
1-5581
 
WATSCO, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
FLORIDA
 
59-0778222
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
2665 South Bayshore Drive, Suite 901
Miami, FL 33133
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
(305)
714-4100
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading
Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Common stock, $0.50 par value
 
WSO
 
New York Stock Exchange
Class B common stock, $0.50 par value
 
WSOB
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  
    No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  
    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  
    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  
    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
 
Accelerated filer
 
             
Non-accelerated filer
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
             
 
 
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Act). Yes 
     No 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting common equity held by
non-affiliates
of the registrant as of June 28, 2019, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $5,328 million, based on the closing sale price of the registrant’s common stock on that date. For purposes of determining this number, all named executive officers and directors of the registrant as of June 28, 2019 were considered affiliates of the registrant. This number is provided only for the purposes of this Annual Report on Form
10-K
and does not represent an admission by either the registrant or any such person as to the affiliate status of such person.
The registrant’s common stock outstanding as of February 25, 2020 comprised (i) 32,717,924 shares of Common stock, excluding 4,823,988 treasury shares, and (ii) 5,564,890 shares of Class B common stock, excluding 48,263 treasury shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information required by Part II is incorporated by reference from the registrant’s 2019 Annual Report, attached hereto as Exhibit 13. The information required by Part III (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14) is incorporated herein by reference from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2020 annual meeting of shareholders (to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A).
 
 
 

Table of Contents
WATSCO, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
Form
10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019
INDEX
 
 
Page
 
             
PART I
 
   
 
             
Item 1.
     
4
 
             
Item 1A.
     
12
 
             
Item 1B.
     
16
 
             
Item 2.
     
16
 
             
Item 3.
     
17
 
             
Item 4.
     
17
 
             
PART II
 
   
 
             
Item 5.
     
17
 
             
Item 6.
     
18
 
             
Item 7.
     
19
 
             
Item 7A.
     
19
 
             
Item 8.
     
19
 
             
Item 9.
     
19
 
             
Item 9A.
     
19
 
             
Item 9B.
     
19
 
             
PART III
 
   
 
             
PART IV
 
   
 
             
Item 15.
     
20
 
             
Item 16.
     
22
 
             
 
   
23
 
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PART I
Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form
10-K
contains or incorporates by reference statements that are not historical in nature and that are intended to be, and are hereby identified as, “forward-looking statements” as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Statements which are not historical in nature, including the words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “could,” “should,” “may,” “plan,” “seek,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “target,” “will,” “project,” “focused,” “outlook,” “goal,” “designed,” and variations of these words and negatives thereof and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, including statements regarding, among others, (i) economic conditions, (ii) business and acquisition strategies, (iii) potential acquisitions and/or joint ventures and investments in unconsolidated entities, (iv) financing plans, and (v) industry, demographic and other trends affecting our financial condition or results of operations. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, and changes in circumstances, certain of which are beyond our control. Actual results could differ materially from these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including, but not limited to:
  general economic conditions, both in the United States and in the international markets we serve;
  competitive factors within the HVAC/R industry;
  effects of supplier concentration;
  fluctuations in certain commodity costs;
  consumer spending;
  consumer debt levels;
  new housing starts and completions;
  capital spending in the commercial construction market;
  access to liquidity needed for operations;
  seasonal nature of product sales;
  weather patterns and conditions;
  insurance coverage risks;
  federal, state, and local regulations impacting our industry and products;
  prevailing interest rates;
  foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;
  international risk;
  cybersecurity risk; and
  the continued viability of our business strategy.
We believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable; however, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based on current expectations. For additional information regarding important factors that may affect our operations and could cause actual results to vary materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements, please see the discussion included in Item 1A “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form
10-K,
as well as the other documents and reports that we file with the SEC. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date the statements were made. We assume no obligation to update forward-looking information or the discussion of such risks and uncertainties to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions, or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking information, except as required by applicable law. We qualify any and all our forward-looking statements by these cautionary factors.
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
General
Watsco, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Watsco,” or “we,” “us,” or “our
) was incorporated in Florida in 1956 and is the largest distributor of air conditioning, heating and refrigeration equipment and related parts and supplies (“HVAC/R”) in the HVAC/R distribution industry in North America. At December 31, 2019, we operated from 606 locations in 38 U.S. States, Canada, Mexico and Puerto Rico with additional market coverage on an export basis to portions of Latin America and the Caribbean, through which we serve more than 100,000 active contractors and dealers that service the replacement and new construction markets. Our revenues in HVAC/R distribution have increased from $64.1 million in 1989 to $4.8 billion in 2019, resulting from our strategic acquisition of companies with established market positions and subsequent building of revenues and profit through a combination of additional locations, introduction of new products, and other initiatives.
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Our principal executive office is located at 2665 South Bayshore Drive, Suite 901, Miami, Florida 33133, and our telephone number is (305)
 714-4100.
Our website address on the Internet is www.watsco.com and
e-mails
may be sent to info@watsco.com. Our website address is included in this report only as an inactive textual reference. Information contained on, or available through, our website is not incorporated by reference in, or made a part of, this report.
Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Industry
The HVAC/R distribution industry is highly fragmented with approximately 2,100 distribution companies. The industry in the United States and Canada is well-established, having had its primary period of growth during the post-World War II era with the advent of affordable central air conditioning and heating systems for both residential and commercial applications. The advent of HVAC/R products in Latin America and the Caribbean is also well-established, but has emerged in more recent years as those economies have grown and products have become more affordable and have matured from luxury to necessity.
Based on data published in the 2019 IBIS World Industry Report for Heating and Air Conditioning Contractors in the U.S. and other available data, we estimate that the annual market on an installed basis for residential central air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration equipment, and related parts and supplies is approximately $97.0 billion. Air conditioning and heating equipment is manufactured primarily by seven major companies that together account for approximately 90% of all units shipped in the United States each year. These companies are: Carrier Corporation (“Carrier”), a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation (“UTC”); Goodman Manufacturing Company, L.P. (“Goodman”), a subsidiary of Daikin Industries, Ltd.; Rheem Manufacturing Company (“Rheem”); Trane Inc. (“Trane”), a subsidiary of Ingersoll-Rand Company Limited; York International Corporation, a subsidiary of Johnson Controls, Inc.; Lennox International, Inc.; and Nortek Global HVAC, LLC (“Nortek”), a subsidiary of Nortek, Inc. These manufacturers distribute their products through a combination of factory-owned locations and independent distributors who, in turn, supply the equipment and related parts and supplies to contractors and dealers that sell to and install the products for consumers, businesses, and other
end-users.
Air conditioning and heating equipment is sold to the replacement and new construction markets for both residential and commercial applications. The residential replacement market has increased in size and importance over the past several years as a result of the aging of the installed base of residential central air conditioners and furnaces, the introduction of new higher energy efficient models to address both regulatory mandates as well as consumer optionality, the remodeling and expansion of existing homes, the addition of central air conditioning to homes that previously had only heating products, and consumers’ overall unwillingness to live without air conditioning or heating products. The mechanical life of central air conditioning and furnaces varies by geographical region due to usage and ranges from approximately 8 to 20 years. According to data published by the Energy Information Administration in 2018 there are approximately 91 million central air conditioning and heating systems installed in the United States that have been in service for more than 10 years. Many installed units are currently reaching the end of their useful lives, which we believe long-term provides a growing and stable replacement market.
Additionally, we sell a variety of
non-equipment
products including parts, ductwork, air movement products, insulation, tools, installation supplies, thermostats, and air quality products. We distribute products manufactured by Resideo Technologies Inc. (“Resideo”), Johns Manville (“Johns Manville”) and Owens Corning Insulating Systems, LLC (“Owens Corning”), among others.
We also sell products to the refrigeration market. These products include condensing units, compressors, evaporators, valves, refrigerant,
walk-in
coolers, and ice machines for industrial and commercial applications. We distribute products manufactured by Copeland Corporation, LLC, a subsidiary of Emerson Electric Co. (“Emerson”), The Chemours Company (“Chemours”), Mueller Industries, Inc. (“Mueller”), and Welbilt, Inc. (“Welbilt”), among others.
Culture and Business Strategy
Watsco began its HVAC/R distribution strategy in 1989 and has grown by using a “buy and build” philosophy, resulting in substantial long-term growth in revenues and profits. The “buy” component of the strategy has focused on acquiring or investing in market leaders to either expand into new geographic areas or gain additional market share in existing markets. We have employed a disciplined and conservative approach, which seeks opportunities that fit well-defined financial and strategic criteria. The “build” component of the strategy has focused on encouraging growth at acquired companies, by adding products and locations to better serve customers, investing in scalable technologies, and exchanging ideas and business concepts amongst leadership teams. Newly acquired businesses have access to our capital resources and established vendor relationships to provide their customers with an expanded array of product lines on favorable terms and conditions
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with an intensified commitment to service. We have also developed a culture whereby leaders, managers and employees are provided the opportunity to own shares of Watsco through a variety of stock-based equity plans. We believe that this culture instills a performance-driven, long-term focus on the part of our employees and aligns their interests with the interests of other Watsco shareholders.
Culture of Innovation & Technology Strategy
In recent years, we have established a strong culture of innovation, whereby people, processes and technology have rapidly evolved to modernize and digitize our business. With this digital evolution in mind, our efforts have addressed how customers are served, how internal processes and practices can be improved, and how data and analytics can be created and used to enhance long-term performance. Investments include the addition of more than 200 technology employees along with investments in our locations and infrastructure to enable these technologies.
To that end, several scalable technology platforms have been launched with the largest focus on customer-obsessed technologies, which are improving and transforming the customer experience at all of our locations. Specific initiatives include: (i) mobile applications for iOS and Android devices to help customers operate more efficiently and interact with our locations more easily; (ii)
 e-commerce
between our customers and our subsidiaries; (iii) supply chain optimization; (iv) building and maintaining the largest source of digitized HVAC/R product information; and (v) the development of business intelligence systems and related data sets, which provide enhanced management tools. In addition, through our subsidiary Watsco Ventures, LLC (“Watsco Ventures”), we have developed (internally and through external collaboration) a variety of early-stage technologies with the goal of helping contractor customers grow and become more profitable, and otherwise compliment the initiatives set forth above.
To further extend our technology reach, in August 2018, we acquired Alert Labs, Inc. (“Alert Labs”), a company based in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada that develops, designs and builds “internet of things,” or IoT, hardware and software, including cloud-based and mobile solutions aimed at protecting homes and businesses from property damage and unnecessary expenses. Alert Labs has also furthered the development of Sentree, an IoT device developed by Watsco Ventures. Sentree attaches to an existing HVAC system and, through a proprietary cloud-based software platform, remotely measures, collects and analyzes vital performance analytics.
Strategy in Existing Markets
Our strategy for growth in existing markets focuses on customer service, product expansion, and the implementation of technology to satisfy the needs of the higher growth, higher margin replacement market, in which customers generally demand immediate, convenient, and reliable service. We respond to this need by (i) offering a broad range of product lines, including the necessary equipment, parts, and supplies to enable a contractor to install or repair a central air conditioner, furnace, or refrigeration system, (ii) maintaining a strong density of warehouse locations for increased customer convenience, (iii) maintaining well-stocked inventories to ensure that customer orders are filled in a timely manner, (iv) providing a high degree of technical expertise at the point of sale, (v) collaborating with customers to advertise and market their business and services in local markets, and (vi) developing and implementing technology to further enhance customer service capabilities. We believe these concepts provide a competitive advantage over smaller, less-capitalized competitors that are unable to commit resources to open and maintain additional locations, implement technological business solutions, provide the same range of products, maintain the same inventory levels, or attract the wide range of expertise that is required to support a diverse product offering. In some geographic areas, we believe we have a competitive advantage over factory-operated distribution networks, which typically do not maintain inventories of parts and supplies that are as diversified as ours and which have fewer warehouse locations than we do, making it more difficult for these competitors to meet the time-sensitive demands of the replacement market.
In addition to the replacement market, we sell to the new construction market, including new homes and commercial construction. We believe our reputation for reliable, high-quality service, and relationships with contractors, who may serve both the replacement and new construction markets, allows us to compete effectively in these markets.
Performance-Based Compensation & Stock-Based Equity Plans
We maintain a culture that rewards performance through a variety of performance-based pay, commission programs, cash incentives, and stock-based equity programs. Stock-based plans include 401(k) matching contributions to eligible employees, a voluntary employee stock purchase plan, and the granting of stock options and
non-vested
restricted stock based on individual merit and measures of performance. Our equity compensation plans are designed to promote long-term performance, as well as to create long-term employee retention, continuity of leadership, and an ownership culture whereby management and employees think and act as owners of the Company. We believe that our restricted stock program is unique because an employee’s restricted share grants generally vest entirely and only at the end of his or her career (age 62 or later) and, prior to retirement, these grants remain subject to significant risk of forfeiture.
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Product Line Expansion
We actively seek new or expanded territories of distribution from our key equipment suppliers. We continually evaluate new parts and supply products to support equipment sales and further enhance service to our customers. This initiative includes increasing our product offering with existing vendors and identifying new product opportunities through traditional and
non-traditional
supply channels. We have also introduced private-label products as a means to obtain market share and grow revenues. We believe that our private-label branded products complement our existing product offerings at selected locations, based on customer needs and the particular market position and price of these products.
Acquisition Strategy
We focus on acquiring and investing in businesses that either complement our current presence in existing markets or establish a presence in new geographic markets. Since 1989, we have acquired 63 HVAC/R distribution businesses, some of which currently operate as primary operating subsidiaries. Other smaller acquired distributors have been integrated into or are under the management of our primary operating subsidiaries. Through a combination of sales and market share growth, opening of new locations,
tuck-in
acquisitions, expansion of product lines, improved pricing, and programs that have resulted in higher gross profit, performance incentives, and a culture of equity value for key leadership, we have produced substantial sales and earnings growth in our acquired businesses. We continue to pursue additional strategic acquisitions, investments and joint ventures to allow further penetration in existing markets and expansion into new geographic markets.
Operating Philosophy
We encourage our local leadership to operate in a manner that builds upon the long-term relationships they have established with their suppliers and customers. Typically, we maintain the identity of businesses by retaining their historical trade names, management teams and sales organizations, and continuity of their product brand-name offerings. We believe this strategy allows us to build on the value of the acquired operations by creating additional sales opportunities while providing an attractive exit strategy for the former owners of these companies.
We maintain a specialized staff at our corporate headquarters that provides functional support for our subsidiaries’ growth strategies in their respective markets. Such functional support staff includes specialists in finance, accounting, product procurement, information technology, treasury and working capital management, tax planning, risk management, and safety. Certain general and administrative expenses are targeted for cost savings by leveraging the overall business volume and improving operating efficiencies.
DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS
Products
We sell an expansive line of products and maintain a diverse mix of inventory to meet our customers’ immediate needs, and we seek to provide products a contractor would generally require when installing or repairing a central air conditioner, furnace, or refrigeration system on short notice. The cooling capacity of air conditioning units is measured in tons. One ton of cooling capacity is equivalent to 12,000 British Thermal Units (“BTUs”) and is generally adequate to air condition approximately 500 square feet of residential space. The products we distribute consist of: (i) equipment, including residential ducted and ductless air conditioners ranging from 1 to 5 tons, gas, electric, and oil furnaces ranging from 50,000 to 150,000 BTUs, commercial air conditioning and heating equipment systems ranging from
1-1/2
to 25 tons, and other specialized equipment, (ii) parts, including replacement compressors, evaporator coils, motors, and other component parts, (iii) supplies, including thermostats, insulation material, refrigerants, ductwork, grills, registers, sheet metal, tools, copper tubing, concrete pads, tape, adhesives, and other ancillary supplies and (iv) plumbing and bathroom remodeling supplies.
Sales of HVAC equipment, which we currently source from approximately 20 vendors, accounted for 68% and 67% of our revenues for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Sales of other HVAC products, which we currently source from approximately 1,200 vendors, comprised 28% and 29% of our revenues for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Sales of commercial refrigeration products, which we currently source from approximately 150 vendors, accounted for 4% of our revenues for both the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018.
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Distribution and Sales
At December 31, 2019, we operated from 606 locations, a vast majority of which are located in regions that we believe have demographic trends favorable to our business. We maintain large inventories at each of our warehouse locations and either deliver products to customers using our trucks or third party logistics providers, or we make products available for
pick-up
at the location nearest to the particular customer. We have approximately 1,000 salespeople, averaging 10 years of experience in the HVAC/R distribution industry.
                 

The markets we serve are as follows:
 
% of Revenues for
the Year Ended
December 31, 2019
 
 
Number of
Locations as of
December 31, 2019
 
United States
   
88
%    
544
 
Canada
   
6
%    
36
 
Latin America and the Caribbean
   
6
%    
26
 
                 
Total
 
 
100
%
 
 
606
 
                 
The largest market we serve is the United States, in which the most significant markets for HVAC/R products are in the Sun Belt States. Accordingly, the majority of our distribution locations are in the Sun Belt, with the highest concentration in Florida and Texas. These markets have been a strategic focus of ours given their size, the reliance by homeowners and businesses on HVAC/R products to maintain a comfortable indoor environment, and the population growth in these areas over the last 40 years, which has led to a substantial installed base requiring replacement, a shorter useful life for equipment given the significant hours of operation, and the focus by electrical utilities on consumer incentives designed to promote replacement of HVAC/R equipment in an effort to improve energy efficiency.
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Markets
The table below identifies the number of our stores by location as of December 31, 2019:
         
Florida
   
100
 
Texas
   
85
 
North Carolina
   
45
 
California
   
36
 
Georgia
   
33
 
South Carolina
   
31
 
Virginia
   
24
 
Tennessee
   
22
 
New York
   
20
 
Louisiana
   
18
 
New Jersey
   
15
 
Pennsylvania
   
15
 
Alabama
   
10
 
Arizona
   
9
 
Connecticut
   
8
 
Massachusetts
   
8
 
Mississippi
   
8
 
Missouri
   
8
 
Kansas
   
6
 
Maryland
   
6
 
Oklahoma
   
5
 
Utah
   
5
 
Arkansas
   
4
 
Indiana
   
2
 
Iowa
   
2
 
Kentucky
   
2
 
Maine
   
2
 
Nebraska
   
2
 
Nevada
   
2
 
South Dakota
   
2
 
West Virginia
   
2
 
Colorado
   
1
 
Delaware
   
1
 
New Hampshire
   
1
 
New Mexico
   
1
 
North Dakota
   
1
 
Rhode Island
   
1
 
Vermont
   
1
 
         
United States
   
544
 
Canada
   
36
 
Mexico
   
13
 
Puerto Rico
   
13
 
         
Total
 
 
606
 
         
Joint Ventures with Carrier Corporation
In 2009, we formed a joint venture with Carrier Corporation (“Carrier”), which we refer to as Carrier Enterprise I, in which Carrier contributed 95 of its company-owned locations in 13 Sun Belt states and Puerto Rico, and its export division in Miami, Florida, and we contributed 15 locations that distributed Carrier products. We have an 80% controlling interest in Carrier Enterprise I, and Carrier has a 20%
non-controlling
interest. On August 1, 2019, Carrier Enterprise I acquired substantially all of the HVAC assets and assumed certain of the liabilities of Peirce-Phelps, Inc., an HVAC distributor operating from 19 locations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware.
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In 2011, we formed a second joint venture with Carrier, in which Carrier contributed 28 of its company-owned locations in the Northeast U.S., and we contributed 14 locations in the Northeast U.S., and we then purchased Carrier’s distribution operations in Mexico, which included seven locations. Collectively, the Northeast locations and the Mexico operations are referred to as Carrier Enterprise II. We have an 80% controlling interest in Carrier Enterprise II, and Carrier has a 20%
non-controlling
interest. Effective May 31, 2019, we purchased an additional 20% ownership interest in Homans Associates II LLC (“Homans”) from Carrier Enterprise II, following which we owned 100% of Homans. Homans previously operated as a division of Carrier Enterprise II and now operates as one of our stand-alone-subsidiaries.
In 2012, we formed a third joint venture, which we refer to as Carrier Enterprise III, with UTC Canada Corporation, referred to as UTC Canada, an affiliate of Carrier. Carrier contributed 35 of its company-owned locations in Canada to Carrier Enterprise III. We have a 60% controlling interest in Carrier Enterprise III, and UTC Canada has a 40%
non-controlling
interest.
Combined, the joint ventures with Carrier represented 58% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019. See
Supplier Concentration
in “Business Risk Factors” in Item 1A.
The business and affairs of the joint ventures are controlled, directed, and managed exclusively by Carrier Enterprise I’s, Carrier Enterprise II’s and Carrier Enterprise III’s respective boards of directors (the “Boards”) pursuant to related operating agreements. The Boards have full, complete and exclusive authority, power, and discretion to manage and control the business, property, and affairs of their respective joint ventures, and to make all decisions regarding those matters and to perform activities customary or incident to the management of such joint ventures, including approval of distributions to us, Carrier and UTC Canada. Each Board is composed of five directors, of whom three directors represent our controlling interest and two directors represent Carrier’s
non-controlling
interest. Matters presented to the Boards for vote are considered approved or consented to upon the receipt of the affirmative vote of at least a majority of all directors entitled to vote with the exception of certain governance matters, which require joint approval.    
Customers and Customer Service
Air conditioning and heating contractors and dealers that install HVAC/R products in homes and businesses must be licensed given the highly-regulated nature of the products, refrigerant, natural gas, and building and zoning requirements. We currently serve more than 100,000 active contractors and dealers who service the replacement and new construction markets for residential and light commercial central air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration systems. No single customer in 2019, 2018 or 2017 represented more than 2% of our consolidated revenues. We focus on providing products where and when the customer needs them, technical support by phone or on site as required, and quick and efficient service at our locations. Increased customer convenience is also provided through mobile applications and
e-commerce,
which allows customers to access information online 24 hours a day, seven days a week to search for desired products, verify inventory availability, obtain pricing, place orders, check order status, schedule pickup or delivery times, and make payments. We believe we compete successfully with other distributors primarily based on an experienced sales organization, strong service support, maintenance of well-stocked inventories, density of warehouse locations, high quality reputation, broad product lines, and the ability to foresee customer demand for new products.
Key Supplier Relationships
Given our leadership position, Watsco represents a strategic business relationship to many of the leading manufacturers in our industry. Significant relationships with HVAC/R equipment manufacturers include Carrier, Rheem, Goodman, Welbilt, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Gree Electric Appliances, Inc., Trane, Midea Group, and Nortek. In addition, we have substantial relationships with manufacturers of
non-equipment
HVAC/R products, including Chemours, Emerson, Flexible Technologies, Inc., Resideo, Johns Manville, Mueller, and Owens Corning.
We believe the diversity of products that we sell, along with the manufacturers’ current product offerings, quality, marketability, and brand-name recognition, allow us to operate favorably relative to our competitors. To maintain brand-name recognition, HVAC/R equipment manufacturers provide national advertising and participate with us in cooperative advertising programs and promotional incentives that are targeted to both dealers and
end-users.
We estimate that the replacement market for residential air conditioning equipment is approximately 85% of industry unit sales in the United States, and we expect this percentage to increase as units installed in the past 20 years wear out or otherwise become practical to replace sooner with newer, more energy-efficient models.
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The Company’s top ten suppliers accounted for 83% of our purchases, including 62% from Carrier, and 9% from Rheem. Given the significant concentration of our suppliers, particularly with Carrier and Rheem, any significant interruption with these suppliers could temporarily disrupt the operations of certain of our subsidiaries, impact current inventory levels, and could adversely affect our financial results. If any restrictions or significant increase in tariffs under existing trade agreements are imposed on products that our top ten suppliers import or assemble products outside of the United States, particularly from Mexico and China, we could be required to raise our prices, which may result in the loss of customers and harm to our business. Future financial results are also materially dependent upon the continued market acceptance of these manufacturers’ respective products and their ability to continue to manufacture products that comply with laws relating to environmental and efficiency standards. However, the Company believes that alternative or substitute products would be readily available in the event of disruption of current supplier relationships given the Company’s prominence in the marketplace, including the number of locations, sales personnel, support structure, marketing and sales expertise, financial position, and established market share. See “Business Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form
10-K
for further discussion.
Distribution Agreements
We maintain trade name and distribution agreements with Carrier and Rheem that provide us distribution rights on an exclusive basis in specified territories and are not subject to a stated term or expiration date. We also maintain distribution agreements with various other suppliers, either on an exclusive or
non-exclusive
basis, for various terms ranging from one to ten years. Certain distribution agreements for particular branded products contain provisions that restrict or limit the sale of competitive products in the locations that sell such branded products. Other than where such location-level restrictions apply, we may distribute the lines of other manufacturers’ air conditioning or heating equipment in other locations in the same territories.
See
Supplier Concentration
in “Business Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form
10-K.
Seasonality
Sales of residential central air conditioners, heating equipment, and parts and supplies are seasonal. Furthermore, profitability can be impacted favorably or unfavorably based on weather patterns, particularly during Summer and Winter selling seasons. Demand related to the residential central air conditioning replacement market is typically highest in the second and third quarters, and demand for heating equipment is usually highest in the fourth quarter. Demand related to the new construction sectors throughout most of the markets we serve tends to be fairly evenly distributed throughout the year and depends largely on housing completions and related weather and economic conditions.
Competition
We operate in highly competitive environments. We compete with a number of distributors and also with several air conditioning and heating equipment manufacturers that distribute a significant portion of their products through their own distribution organizations in certain markets. Competition within any given geographic market is based upon product availability, customer service, price, and quality. Competitive pressures or other factors could cause our products or services to lose market acceptance or result in significant price erosion, all of which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, and liquidity.
Employees
We had approximately 5,800 employees as of December 31, 2019, substantially all of whom are
non-union
employees. Most of our employees are employed on a full-time basis and our relations with our employees are good.
Order Backlog
Order backlog is not a material aspect of our business and no material portion of our business is subject to government contracts.
Government Regulations, Environmental and Health and Safety Matters
Our business is subject to federal, state and local laws, and regulations relating to the storage, handling, transportation, and release of hazardous materials into the environment. These laws and regulations include the Clean Air Act, relating to minimum energy efficiency standards of HVAC systems, and the production, servicing, and disposal of more environmentally friendly refrigerants used in such systems, including those established by the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol concerning the phase-down of the production of
HFC-based
refrigerants for use in new equipment. We are also subject to regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials, including regulations adopted pursuant to the Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1990. Our operations are also subject to health and safety requirements including, but not limited to, the Occupational, Safety and Health Act. We believe that we operate our business in compliance with all applicable federal, state and local laws, and regulations.
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Our industry and business are also subject to United States Department of Energy (“DOE”) standards related to the minimum required efficiency levels of residential central air conditioning systems and heat pumps. For purposes of establishing these energy conservation standards, the DOE divides the United States into three regions (the North, the Southeast, and the Southwest) according to the number of hours that an air conditioner operates to cool a home during the hotter months. The seasonal energy efficiency rating, or SEER, is the metric used to measure HVAC energy efficiency. The higher the SEER, the more efficient the HVAC equipment. The current minimum SEER allowed for HVAC equipment is 13 SEER in the North and 14 SEER for the Southeast and Southwest regions. Beginning in 2023, the minimum efficiency level for residential HVAC systems under 45,000 BTUs will be 14 SEER in the North and 15 SEER in the Southeast and Southwest. For systems over 45,000 BTUs, the minimum efficiency level will be 14 SEER in the North and 14.5 SEER in the Southeast and Southwest. Heat pump efficiency levels will be set at 15 SEER for all three regions. It is too early to determine the impact to our results of operations this transition will have, however, we expect a benefit from selling higher efficiency units, which sell at higher prices.
During 2014, the DOE established new rules for the manufacturing of motors used in residential furnaces with the purpose of increasing the energy efficiency of these motors, and, consequently, the furnaces in which they operate. The mandate dictates that residential furnace fans manufactured in the United States on or after the effective date of July 3, 2019, must have a Fan Energy Rating (“FER”) value reduction of 12% or 46% in watts/cfm, depending on the type of furnace. To meet these new standards, most manufacturers have replaced the permanent split capacitor blower motors in residential furnaces with electronic controlled motors. At December 31, 2019, we had substantially completed the transition of our inventory of residential furnaces to those meeting the updated FER standards.
Available Information
Our website is at www.watsco.com. Our investor relations website is located at https://investors.watsco.com. We make available, free of charge, on our investor relations website under the heading “SEC Filings” our annual reports on Form
10-K,
quarterly reports on Form
10-Q,
current reports on Form
8-K,
and any amendments to those reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Our website address is included in this report only as an inactive textual reference. Information contained on, or available through, our website is not incorporated by reference in, or made a part of, this report.
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
Business Risk Factors
Supplier Concentration
The Company’s top ten suppliers accounted for 83% of our purchases during 2019, including 62% from Carrier, and 9% from Rheem. Carrier provides a diverse variety of brands of HVAC systems including, Carrier, Bryant, Payne, Tempstar, Heil, Comfortmaker and Grandaire, along with complimentary replacement parts. Rheem provides Rheem-brand HVAC systems along with complimentary replacement parts. Given the significant concentration of our supply chain, particularly with Carrier and Rheem, any significant interruption by any of the key manufacturers or a termination of a relationship could temporarily disrupt the operations of certain of our subsidiaries. Additionally, our operations are materially dependent upon the continued market acceptance and quality of these manufacturers’ products and their ability to continue to manufacture products that are competitive and that comply with laws relating to environmental and efficiency standards. Our inability to obtain products from one or more of these manufacturers or a decline in market acceptance of these manufacturers’ products could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, and liquidity.
Many HVAC equipment and component manufacturers, including Carrier and Rheem, source component parts from China and/or assemble a significant amount of products for residential and light-commercial applications from Mexico. If any restrictions or significant increases in tariffs are imposed related to such products sourced or assembled from Mexico and China as a result of amendments to existing trade agreements, and our product costs consequently increase, we would be required to raise our prices, which may result in cost inflation, the loss of customers, and harm to our business. In addition, a novel strain of coronavirus,
COVID-19,
surfaced in Wuhan, China in December 2019, resulting in increased travel restrictions and extended shutdown of certain businesses in the region. The impact of
COVID-19
on our business is uncertain at this time and will depend on future developments; however, prolonged closures in China may disrupt the operations of certain of our suppliers, which could negatively impact our business.
We maintain trade name and distribution agreements with Carrier and Rheem that provide us distribution rights on an exclusive basis in specified territories. Such agreements are not subject to a stated term or expiration date.
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We also maintain other distribution agreements with various other suppliers, either on an exclusive or
non-exclusive
basis, for various terms ranging from one to ten years. Certain of the distribution agreements contain provisions that restrict or limit the sale of competitive products in the locations that sell such branded products. Other than where such location-level restrictions apply, we may distribute other manufacturers’ lines of air conditioning or heating equipment in other locations in the same territories.
On November 26, 2018, the parent company of Carrier, UTC, announced that it intended to separate into three independent companies consisting of its aerospace business, its elevator business, and Carrier. UTC indicated the proposed separation is expected to be effected through
tax-free
spin-offs of its elevator business and Carrier, subject to the completion of financing and satisfaction of customary conditions, and disclosed that UTC expected to complete the spin-offs in 2020. It is too early to determine whether the proposed
spin-off
of Carrier will have any impact on us and our results of operations, and there can be no assurances regarding the ultimate timing of the separation or that the separation will be completed.
Risks Inherent in Acquisitions
As part of our strategy, we intend to pursue additional acquisitions of complementary businesses, including through joint ventures and investments in unconsolidated entities. If we complete future acquisitions, including investments in unconsolidated entities, or enter into new joint ventures, we may be required to incur or assume additional debt and/or issue additional shares of our common stock as consideration, which will dilute our existing shareholders’ ownership interest and may affect our results of operations. Growth through acquisitions involves a number of risks, including, but not limited to, the following:
  the ability to identify and consummate transactions with complementary acquisition candidates;
  the successful operation and/or integration of acquired companies;
  diversion of management’s attention from other daily functions;
  issuance by us of equity securities that would dilute ownership of our existing shareholders;
  incurrence and/or assumption of significant debt and contingent liabilities; and
  possible loss of key employees and/or customer relationships of the acquired companies.
In addition, acquired companies and investments made in unconsolidated entities may have liabilities that we failed or were unable to discover while performing due diligence investigations. We cannot assure you that the indemnification, if any, granted to us by sellers of acquired companies or by joint venture partners will be sufficient in amount, scope, or duration to offset the possible liabilities associated with businesses or properties that we assume upon consummation of an acquisition or joint venture. Any such liabilities, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Failure to successfully manage the operational challenges and risks associated with, or resulting from, acquisitions could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows, and liquidity.
Competition
We operate in highly competitive environments. We compete with other distributors and several air conditioning and heating equipment manufacturers that distribute a significant portion of their products through their own distribution organizations in certain markets. Competition within any given geographic market is based upon product availability, customer service, price, and quality. Competitive pressures or other factors could cause our products or services to lose market acceptance or result in significant price erosion, all of which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows, and liquidity.
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Fluctuations
The functional currency of our operations in Canada is the Canadian dollar, and the functional currency of our operations in Mexico is the U.S. dollar because the majority of our Mexican transactions are denominated in U.S. dollars. Foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations may have an impact on transactions denominated in Canadian dollars and Mexican Pesos, and, therefore, could adversely affect our financial performance. Although we use foreign currency forward contracts to mitigate the impact of currency exchange rate movements, we do not currently hold any derivative contracts that hedge our foreign currency translational exposure.
Seasonality
Sales of residential central air conditioners, heating equipment, and parts and supplies are seasonal, resulting in fluctuations in our revenue from quarter to quarter. Furthermore, profitability can be impacted favorably or unfavorably based on the severity or mildness of weather patterns during Summer or Winter selling seasons. Demand related to the residential central air conditioning replacement market is typically highest in the second and third quarters, and demand for heating equipment is usually highest in the fourth quarter. Demand related to the new construction sectors throughout most of the markets is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year and depends largely on housing completions and related weather and economic conditions.
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Dependence on Key Personnel
Much of our success has depended on the skills and experience of senior management personnel. The loss of any of our executive officers or other key senior management personnel could harm our business. We must continuously recruit, retain, and motivate management and other employees to both maintain our current business and to execute our strategic initiatives. Our success has also depended on the contributions and abilities of our store employees upon whom we rely to give customers a superior
in-store
experience. Accordingly, our performance depends on our ability to recruit and retain high quality employees to work in and manage our stores. If we are unable to adequately recruit, retain, and motivate employees our projected growth and expansion, and our business and financial performance may be adversely affected.
Decline in Economic Conditions
We rely predominantly on the credit markets and, to a lesser extent, on the capital markets to meet our financial commitments and short-term liquidity needs if internal funds are not available from our operations. Access to funds under our line of credit is dependent on the ability of the syndicate banks to meet their respective funding commitments. Disruptions in the credit and capital markets could adversely affect our ability to draw on our revolving credit agreement and may also adversely affect the determination of interest rates, particularly rates based on LIBOR, which is one of the base rates under our revolving credit agreement. LIBOR is the subject of recent proposals for reform that currently provide for the
phase-out
of LIBOR by 2021. The consequences of these developments with respect to LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted but could result in an increase in the cost of our debt, as it is currently anticipated that lenders will replace LIBOR with an alternative rate that may exceed what would have been the comparable LIBOR rate. Additionally, disruptions in the credit and capital markets could also result in increased borrowing costs and/or reduced borrowing capacity under our revolving credit agreement. Any long-term disruption could require us to take measures to conserve cash until the markets stabilize, or until alternative credit arrangements or other funding for our business needs can be arranged. Such measures could include reducing or eliminating dividend payments, deferring capital expenditures, and reducing or eliminating other discretionary uses of cash.
A decline in economic conditions and lack of availability of business and consumer credit could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Any capital or credit market disruption could cause broader economic downturns, which may lead to reduced demand for our products and an increased incidence of customers’ inability to pay their accounts. Further, bankruptcies or similar events by customers may cause us to incur increased levels of bad debt expense. Also, our suppliers may be negatively impacted by deteriorating economic conditions, causing disruption or delay of product availability. These events would adversely impact our results of operations, cash flows, and financial position. Additionally, if the conditions of the capital and credit markets adversely affect the financial institutions that have committed to extend us credit, they may be unable to fund borrowings under such commitments, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition, liquidity, and our ability to borrow funds for working capital, acquisitions, capital expenditures, and other corporate purposes.
Cybersecurity Risks
In addition to the disruptions that may occur from interruptions in our information technology systems, cybersecurity threats and sophisticated and targeted cyberattacks pose a risk to our information technology systems. We have established security policies, processes and defenses designed to help identify and protect against intentional and unintentional misappropriation or corruption of our information technology systems and information and disruption of our operations. Despite these efforts, our information technology systems may be damaged, disrupted or shut down due to attacks by unauthorized access, malicious software, computer viruses, undetected intrusion, hardware failures or other events, and in these circumstances our disaster recovery plans may be ineffective or inadequate. These breaches or intrusions could lead to business interruption, exposure of proprietary or confidential information, data corruption, damage to our reputation, exposure to legal and regulatory proceedings and other costs. Such events could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, we could be adversely affected if any of our significant customers or suppliers experiences any similar events that disrupt their business operations or damage their reputation.
We maintain monitoring practices and protections of our information technology to reduce these risks and test our systems on an ongoing basis for potential threats. We carry cybersecurity insurance to help mitigate the financial exposure and related notification procedures in the event of intentional intrusion. There can be no assurance, however, that our efforts will prevent the risk of a security breach of our databases or systems that could adversely affect our business.
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International Risk
Our international sales and operations, as well as sourcing of products from suppliers with international operations, are subject to various risks associated with changes in local laws, regulations and policies, including those related to tariffs, trade restrictions and trade agreements, investments, taxation, capital controls, employment regulations, different liability standards, and limitations on the repatriation of funds due to foreign currency controls. Our international sales and operations, as well as sourcing of products from suppliers with international operations, are also sensitive to changes in foreign national priorities, including government budgets, as well as political and economic instability. In addition, prolonged closures in China due to
COVID-19
may disrupt the operations of certain of our suppliers, which could negatively impact our business. Unfavorable changes in any of the foregoing could adversely affect our results of operations or could cause a disruption in our supply chain for products sourced internationally. Additionally, failure to comply with the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could subject us to, among other things, penalties and legal expenses that could harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
General Risk Factors
Goodwill, Intangibles and Long-Lived Assets
At December 31, 2019, goodwill, intangibles, and long-lived assets represented approximately 39% of our total assets. The recoverability of goodwill, indefinite lived intangibles, and long-lived assets is evaluated at least annually and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. The identification and measurement of goodwill impairment involves the estimation of the fair value of our reporting unit and contains uncertainty because management must use judgment in determining appropriate assumptions to be used in the measurement of fair value. The estimates of fair value of our reporting unit, indefinite lived intangibles, and long-lived assets are based on the best information available as of the date of the assessment and incorporates management’s assumptions about expected future cash flows and contemplates other valuation techniques. Future cash flows can be affected by changes in the industry, a declining economic environment, or market conditions. We cannot assure you that we will not suffer material impairments to goodwill, intangibles, or long-lived assets in the future.
Risks Related to Loss Contingencies
We carry general liability, comprehensive property damage, workers’ compensation, health benefits, and other insurance coverage that management considers adequate for the protection of its assets and operations at reasonable premiums. There can be no assurance that the coverage limits and related premiums of such policies will be adequate to cover claims, losses and expenses for lawsuits which have been, or may be, brought against us. A loss in excess of insurance coverage could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and/or profitability. Certain self-insurance risks for casualty insurance programs and health benefits are retained and reserves are established based on claims filed and estimates of claims incurred but not yet reported. Assurance cannot be provided that actual claims will not exceed present estimates. Exposure to catastrophic losses has been limited by maintaining excess and aggregate liability coverage and implementing stop-loss control programs.
Risks Related to our Common Stock
Class B Common Stock and Insider Ownership
As of December 31, 2019, our directors and executive officers and entities affiliated with them owned (i) Common stock representing 1% of the outstanding shares of Common stock and (ii) Class B common stock representing 88% of the outstanding shares of Class B common stock. These interests represent 56% of the aggregate combined voting power (including 51% beneficially owned by Albert H. Nahmad, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, through shares owned by him and shares held by affiliated limited partnerships and various family trusts). Accordingly, our directors and executive officers collectively have the voting power to elect six members of our nine-person Board of Directors.
Our Class B common stock is substantially identical to our Common stock except: (i) Common stock is entitled to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, and each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten votes; (ii) shareholders of Common stock are entitled to elect 25% of our Board of Directors (rounded up to the nearest whole number), and Class B shareholders are entitled to elect the balance of the Board of Directors; (iii) cash dividends may be paid on Common stock without paying a cash dividend on Class B common stock, and no cash dividend may be paid on Class B common stock unless at least an equal cash dividend is paid on Common stock; and (iv) Class B common stock is convertible at any time into Common stock on a
one-for-one
basis at the option of the shareholder.
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Future Sales
We are not restricted from issuing additional shares of our Common stock or Class B common stock (which we refer to together as common stock), including securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, our common stock or any substantially similar securities in the future. We may issue shares of our common stock or other securities in one or more registered or unregistered offerings, and we may also issue our securities in connection with investments or acquisitions. The number of shares of our common stock issued in connection with any of the foregoing may result in dilution to holders of our common stock.
Volatility
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations. Securities markets worldwide experience significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, could reduce the market price of shares of our common stock in spite of our operating performance. The trading price of our common stock may be adversely affected due to a number of factors, most of which we cannot predict or control, such as the following:
  fluctuations in our operating results;
 
  a decision by the Board of Directors to reduce or eliminate cash dividends on our common stock;
 
  changes in recommendations or earnings estimates by securities analysts;
 
  general market conditions in our industry or in the economy as a whole; and
 
  political instability, natural disasters, war and/or events of terrorism.
 
Trading Liquidity
The trading market for our common stock is limited, and there can be no assurance that a more liquid trading market for our common stock will develop. There can be no assurance as to the liquidity of any market for our common stock, the ability of the holders of our common stock to sell any of their securities and the price at which the holders of our common stock will be able to sell such securities.
Payment of Dividends
The amount of any future dividends that we will pay, if any, will depend upon a number of factors. Future dividends will be declared and paid at the sole discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend upon such factors as cash flow generated by operations, profitability, financial condition, cash requirements, future prospects, and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. The right of our Board of Directors to declare dividends, however, is subject to the availability of sufficient funds under Florida law to pay dividends. In addition, our ability to pay dividends depends on certain restrictions in our credit agreement.
Securities Analyst Research and Reports
The trading markets for our common stock rely in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business or industry. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or our industry, or the stock of UTC or any of our competitors, or publish negative or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
 
Our main properties include warehousing and distribution facilities, trucks, and administrative office space.
Warehousing and Distribution Facilities
At December 31, 2019, we operated 606 warehousing and distribution facilities across 38 U.S. states, Canada, Mexico, and Puerto Rico, having an aggregate of approximately 13.4 million square feet of space, of which approximately 13.2 million square feet is leased. The majority of these leases are for terms of three to five years. We believe that our facilities are sufficient to meet our present operating needs.
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Trucks
At December 31, 2019, we operated 629 ground transport vehicles, including delivery and
pick-up
trucks, vans, and tractors. Of this number, 377 trucks were leased and the rest were owned. We believe that the present size of our truck fleet is adequate to support our operations.
Administrative Facilities
Senior management and support staff are located at various administrative offices in approximately 0.2 million square feet of space.
ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
Information with respect to this item may be found in Note 19 to our audited consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form
10-K
under the caption “Litigation, Claims and Assessments,” which information is incorporated by reference in this Item 3 of Part I of this Annual Report on Form
10-K.
ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not applicable
.
PART II
ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Market Information
Our Common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol WSO, and our Class B common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol WSOB.
Holders
At February 24, 2020, there were 229 Common stock registered shareholders and 148 Class B common stock registered shareholders.
Shareholder Return Performance
The following graph compares the cumulative five-year total shareholder return attained by holders of our Common stock and Class B common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the Russell 2000 index, the S&P MidCap 400 index, and the S&P 500 index. Given our position as the largest distributor of HVAC/R equipment, parts and supplies in North America, our unique, sole line of business, the nature of our customers (air conditioning and heating contractors), and the products and markets we serve, we cannot reasonably identify an appropriate peer group; therefore, we have included in the graph below the performance of the Russell 2000 index, the S&P MidCap 400 index, and the S&P 500 index, which contain companies with market capitalizations similar to our own. An investment of $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends) is assumed to have been made in our common stock and in each index on December 31, 2014 and its relative performance is tracked through December 31, 2019.
The performance graph shall not be deemed incorporated by reference by any general statement incorporating by reference this annual report into any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except to the extent we specifically incorporate this information by reference, and shall not otherwise be deemed filed under such acts.
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COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among Watsco, Inc., the Russell 2000 Index,
the S&P Midcap 400 Index and the S&P 500 Index
 
* $100 invested on 12/31/14 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
 
Fiscal year ending December 31.
Copyright
©
2020 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
Copyright
©
2020 Russell Investment Group. All rights reserved.
                                                 
 
12/31/14
 
 
12/31/15
 
 
12/31/16
 
 
12/31/17
 
 
12/31/18
 
 
12/31/19
 
Watsco, Inc.
   
100.00
     
112.04
     
145.65
     
172.39
     
145.63
     
196.53
 
Watsco Class B
   
100.00
     
113.56
     
146.08
     
171.07
     
141.30
     
197.69
 
Russell 2000 Index
   
100.00
     
95.59
     
115.95
     
132.94
     
118.30
     
148.49
 
S&P MidCap 400 Index
   
100.00
     
97.82
     
118.11
     
137.30
     
122.08
     
154.07
 
S&P 500 Index
   
100.00
     
101.38
     
113.51
     
138.29
     
132.23
     
173.86
 
 
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
In September 1999, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase, at management’s discretion, of up to 7,500,000 shares of common stock in the open market or via private transactions. No shares were repurchased under this plan during 2019, 2018 or 2017. In aggregate, 6,370,913 shares of Common and Class B common stock have been repurchased at a cost of $114.4 million since the inception of this plan. At December 31, 2019, there were 1,129,087 shares remaining authorized for repurchase under this plan. Shares were last repurchased by the Company in 2008; thus, we did not otherwise repurchase any of our common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2019.
ITEM 6.
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
Our 2019 Annual Report contains “Selected Consolidated Financial Data,” which section is incorporated herein by reference.
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ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
 
 
 
Our 2019 Annual Report contains “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” which section is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
 
 
 
 
Our 2019 Annual Report contains “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk,” which section is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
 
 
 
Our 2019 and 2018 Consolidated Balance Sheets and other consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, together with the report thereon of KPMG LLP dated February 28, 2020, included in our 2019 Annual Report are incorporated herein by reference.
The 2019 and 2018 unaudited Selected Quarterly Financial Data appearing in our 2019 Annual Report is incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 9.
CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
 
 
 
 
None.
ITEM 9A.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
 
 
 
 
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rule
13a-15(e)
under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)) that are, among other things, designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, including our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), Executive Vice President (“EVP”) and Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”), to allow for timely decisions regarding required disclosure and appropriate SEC filings.
Our management, with the participation of our CEO, EVP and CFO, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the period covered by this report, and, based on that evaluation, our CEO, EVP and CFO concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective, at a reasonable assurance level, at and as of such date.
Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Our 2019 Annual Report contains “Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting” and the report thereon of KPMG LLP dated February 28, 2020, and each is incorporated herein by reference
.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We are continuously seeking to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of our operations and of our internal controls. This results in refinements to processes throughout the Company. However, there were no changes in internal controls over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rules
13a-15(f)
and
15d-15(f)
under the Exchange Act) during the quarter ended December 31, 2019, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. In accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, we have not yet assessed the internal control over financial reporting of N&S Supply of Fishkill, Inc. (“N&S”), Peirce-Phelps, Inc. (“PPI”) or Dunphey & Associates Supply Co., Inc. (“DASCO”), which collectively represented approximately 7% of our total consolidated assets at December 31, 2019 and approximately 3% of our consolidated revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019. From the respective acquisition dates of November 26, 2019, August 1, 2019 and April 2, 2019 to December 31, 2019, the processes and systems of N&S, PPI and DASCO did not impact the internal controls over financial reporting for our other consolidated subsidiaries.
ITEM 9B.
OTHER INFORMATION
 
 
 
 
None.
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PART III
This part of Form
10-K,
which includes Items 10 through 14, is omitted because we will file definitive proxy material pursuant to Regulation 14A not more than 120 days after the close of our most recently ended fiscal year, which proxy material will include the information required by Items 10 through 14 and is incorporated herein by reference.
PART IV
ITEM 15.
EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
 
 
 
 
     
(a)(1)
 
Financial Statements
. Our consolidated financial statements are incorporated by reference from our 2019 Annual Report.
     
    (2)
 
Financial Statement Schedules
. The schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or the required information is shown in the consolidated financial statements or notes thereto.
     
    (3)
 
Exhibits
. The following exhibits are submitted with this Annual Report on Form
10-K
or, where indicated, incorporated by reference to other filings.
 
 
 
 
INDEX TO EXHIBITS
     
3.1
 
     
3.2
 
     
4.1
 
Specimen form of Class B Common Stock Certificate (filed as Exhibit 4.6 to the Registration Statement on Form
S-1
(No.
33-56646)
and incorporated herein by reference). (P)
     
4.2
 
Specimen form of Common Stock Certificate (filed as Exhibit 4.4 to the Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the fiscal year ended December 31, 1994 and incorporated herein by reference). (P)
     
4.3
 
     
10.1(a)
 
     
10.1(b)
 
     
10.1(c)
 
     
10.1(d)
 
     
10.1(e)
 
     
10.1(f)
 
     
10.1(g)
 
 
 
 
 
20

Table of Contents
     
10.1(h)
 
     
10.1(i)
 
     
10.1(j)
 
     
10.1(k)
 
     
10.1(l)
 
     
10.1(m)
 
     
10.1(n)
 
     
10.1(o)
 
     
10.1(p)
 
     
10.1(q)
 
     
10.1(r)
 
     
10.1(s)
 
     
10.1(t)
 
     
10.1(u)
 
     
10.2
 

Watsco, Inc. 2014 Incentive Compensation Plan (filed as Appendix A to the Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A in respect of our 2014 Annual Meeting of Shareholders and incorporated herein by reference). *

 
 
 
 
21

Table of Contents
     
10.3
 

Fourth Amended and Restated 1996 Qualified Employee Stock Purchase Plan dated April 18, 2011 (filed as Appendix A to the Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A in respect of our 2011 Annual Meeting of Shareholders and incorporated herein by reference). *

     
10.4
 
     
10.5
 
     
10.6
 
     
10.7
 
     
13
 
     
21.1
 
     
23.1
 
     
31.1
 
     
31.2
 
     
31.3
 
     
32.1
 
     
101.INS
 
Inline XBRL Instance Document - the instance document does not appear in the Interactive Data File because its XBRL tags are embedded within the Inline XBRL document. #
     
101.SCH
 
Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document. #
     
101.CAL
 
Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document. #
     
101.DEF
 
Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document. #
     
101.LAB
 
Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document. #
     
101.PRE
 
Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document. #
     
104
 
The cover page from the Company’s Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2019, formatted in Inline XBRL.
 
 
 
 
 
#
filed herewith.
 
 
 
 
+ furnished herewith.
 
 
 
 
* Management contract or compensation plan or arrangement.
 
 
 
 
ITEM 16.
FORM
10-K
SUMMARY
 
 
 
 
None.
22

Table of Contents
SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
         
 
WATSCO, INC.
         
February 28, 2020
 
By:
 
/s/ Albert H. Nahmad
 
 
Albert H. Nahmad, Chief Executive Officer
         
February 28, 2020
 
By:
 
/s/ Ana M. Menendez
 
 
Ana M. Menendez, Chief Financial Officer
 
 
 
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
         
SIGNATURE
 
TITLE
 
DATE
/s/ A
lbert H
. N
ahmad
 
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
 
February 28, 2020
Albert H. Nahmad
 
(principal executive officer)
 
         
/s/ A
na m
. M
enendez
 
Chief Financial Officer
 
February 28, 2020
Ana M. Menendez
 
(principal accounting officer
and principal financial officer)
 
         
/s/ C
esar
L. A
lvarez
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Cesar L. Alvarez
 
 
         
/s/ J. M
ichael
C
uster
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
J. Michael Custer
 
 
         
/s/ D
enise
D
ickins
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Denise Dickins
 
 
         
/s/ B
rian e
. K
eeley
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Brian E. Keeley
 
 
         
/s/ B
ob
L. M
oss
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Bob L. Moss
 
 
         
/s/ A
aron
J. N
ahmad
 
Director and President
 
February 28, 2020
Aaron J. Nahmad
 
 
         
/s/ S
teven
R
ubin
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
Steven Rubin
 
 
         
/s/ G
eorge
P. S
ape
 
Director
 
February 28, 2020
George P. Sape
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
23
EX-4.3

Exhibit 4.3

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

As of the end of the fiscal year covered by the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Watsco, Inc., a Florida corporation (the “Company”), to which this Exhibit is attached, or incorporated by reference, as an exhibit, the following securities of the Company were registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended: Common stock, par value $0.50 per share (the “Common stock”), and Class B common stock, par value $0.50 per share (the “Class B common stock”). Unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to “we”, “our”, “ours”, and “us” refer to the Company.

The following summarizes certain material terms and provisions of our Common stock, our Class B common stock and our preferred stock. This summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Florida Business Corporation Act (the “Florida Act”), and the complete text of our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation, as amended (the “Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation”) and the complete text of our Second Amended and Restated Bylaws, as amended (the “Amended and Restated Bylaws”).

Overview – Authorized and Outstanding Shares

Under our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation, we have the authority to issue:

 

   

60,000,000 shares of Common stock;

 

   

10,000,000 shares of Class B common stock; and

 

   

10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.50 per share, which are issuable in series on terms determined by our Board of Directors, of which none are currently designated.

Rights of Our Common Stock

Preemptive Rights. The holders of our Common stock do not have preemptive rights to purchase or subscribe for any stock or other securities of ours.

Voting Rights. Each outstanding share of our Common stock is entitled to one (1) vote per share.

Dividends. Holders of our Common stock are entitled to receive dividends or other distributions when and if declared by our Board of Directors. The right of our Board of Directors to declare dividends, however, is subject to any rights of the holders of other classes of our capital stock and the availability of sufficient funds under Florida law to pay dividends. In addition, our ability to pay dividends depends on certain restrictions in our credit agreement.

Liquidation Rights. In the event of the liquidation of the Company, subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of other classes of our capital stock, the holders of our Common stock are entitled to receive any of our assets available for distribution to our shareholders ratably in proportion to the number of shares held by them.

Listing. We list our Common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “WSO.”

Rights of Our Class B Common Stock

Our Class B common stock is substantially identical to our Common stock except: (i) each share of Common stock is entitled to one (1) vote on all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, and each share of Class B common stock is entitled to ten (10) votes; (ii) shareholders of Common stock are entitled to elect 25% of our Board of Directors (rounded up to the nearest whole number), and Class B shareholders are entitled to elect the balance of the Board of Directors; (iii) cash dividends may be paid on Common stock without paying a cash dividend on Class B common stock, and no cash dividend may be paid on Class B common stock unless at least an equal per share cash dividend is paid on Common stock; and (iv) Class B common stock is convertible at any time into Common stock on a one-for-one basis at the option of the shareholder.


We list our Class B common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “WSOB.”

Rights of Our Preferred Stock

We are authorized to issue preferred stock with such designation, rights and preferences as may be determined from time to time by our Board of Directors. Accordingly, the Board of Directors is empowered, without approval by the holders of our Common stock and Class B common stock, to issue preferred stock with dividend, liquidation, conversion, voting or other rights which could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our Common stock and Class B common stock. In the event of issuance, the preferred stock could be utilized, under certain circumstances, as a method of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change in control of the Company or making removal of management more difficult.

Material Provisions of our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws

Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws contain provisions that could discourage, delay or prevent a tender offer or takeover attempt at a price which many shareholders may find attractive. The existence of these provisions could limit the price that investors might otherwise pay in the future for shares of our Common stock and Class B common stock.

Blank Check Preferred Stock. As noted above, our preferred stock could be issued quickly and utilized, under certain circumstances, as a method of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change in control of the Company or make removal of management more difficult.

Election of Directors. Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation provide for the filling of vacancies occurring on the Board of Directors by certain votes of the remaining directors. These provisions may discourage a third party from voting to remove incumbent directors and simultaneously gaining control of the Board of Directors by filling the vacancies created by that removal with its own nominees.

Classified Board. Our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation provide that our Board of Directors shall be divided into three classes serving staggered terms. Approximately one-third of the Board of Directors is elected each year. The provision for a classified board could prevent a party who acquires control of a majority of our outstanding capital stock entitled to vote from obtaining control of our Board of Directors until the second annual shareholders’ meeting following the date the acquiring party obtains such a controlling interest. The classified board provision could discourage a potential acquiror from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the Company and could increase the likelihood that incumbent directors will retain their positions.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our Common stock and Class B common stock is American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC.

Florida Anti-Takeover Statute

As a Florida corporation, we are subject to certain anti-takeover provisions that apply to public corporations under Florida law. Pursuant to Section 607.0901 of the Florida Act, a publicly held Florida corporation may not engage in a broad range of business combinations or other extraordinary corporate transactions with an interested shareholder for a period of three (3) years following the time that such shareholder became an interested shareholder, unless:

 

   

such business combination or other extraordinary corporate transaction (including a transaction which resulted in the shareholder becoming an interested shareholder) is approved by a majority of disinterested directors before the subject shareholder becomes an interested shareholder;


   

upon consummation of such a business combination or extraordinary corporate transaction that resulted in the subject shareholder becoming an interested shareholder, such shareholder owned at least 85% of the outstanding voting shares of the corporation at the time such transaction commenced, exclusive of shares owned by directors, officers and certain employee stock plans; or

 

   

at or subsequent to the time the subject shareholder became an interested shareholder, such business combination or other extraordinary corporate transaction is approved by the board of directors and authorized by an affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds of the voting shares of the corporation (excluding shares held by the interested shareholder) at an annual or special meeting of shareholders, and not by written consent.

The above requirements do not apply to such business combinations or other extraordinary corporate transactions with an interested shareholder if:

 

   

the corporation has not had more than 300 shareholders of record at any time during the three years preceding the announcement date of any such business combination;

 

   

the interested shareholder has owned at least 80% of the corporation’s outstanding voting shares for at least three (3) years preceding the announcement date of any such business combination;

 

   

the interested shareholder is the beneficial owner of at least 90% of the outstanding voting shares of the corporation, exclusive of shares acquired directly from the corporation in a transaction not approved by a majority of the disinterested directors; or

 

   

the consideration paid to the holders of the corporation’s voting stock is at least equal to certain fair price criteria.

An interested shareholder is defined as a person who, together with affiliates and associates, beneficially owns more than 15% of a corporation’s outstanding voting shares. We have not made an election in our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation to opt out of Section 607.0901.

In addition, we are subject to Section 607.0902 of the Florida Act, which prohibits the voting of shares in a publicly held Florida corporation that are acquired in a control share acquisition unless (i) our Board of Directors approved such acquisition prior to its consummation or (ii) after such acquisition, in lieu of prior approval by our Board of Directors, the holders of a majority of the corporation’s voting shares, exclusive of shares owned by officers of the corporation, employee directors or the acquiring party, approve the granting of voting rights as to the shares acquired in the control share acquisition. A control share acquisition is defined as an acquisition that immediately thereafter entitles the acquiring party to 20% or more of the total voting power in an election of directors. We have not made an election in our Amended and Restated Articles of Incorporation or Amended and Restated Bylaws to opt out of Section 607.0902.

EX-13
P2Y7P3YNet deferred tax liabilities have been included in the consolidated balance sheets in deferred income taxes and other liabilities.Sales of residential central air conditioners, heating equipment and parts and supplies are seasonal. Demand related to the residential central air conditioning replacement market is typically highest in the second and third quarters, and demand for heating equipment is usually highest in the fourth quarter. Demand related to the new construction sectors throughout most of the markets is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year except for dependence on housing completions and related weather and economic conditions.Quarterly and year-to-date earnings per share are calculated on an individual basis; therefore, the sum of earnings per share amounts for the quarters may not equal earnings per share amounts for the year.Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted the provisions of accounting guidance related to revenue recognition. Amounts prior to January 1, 2018 have not been adjusted and remain as originally reported for such periods. See Note 3.Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted the provisions of accounting guidance related to leases. Amounts prior to January 1, 2019 have not been adjusted and remain as originally reported for such periods. 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EXHIBIT 13
WATSCO, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, included under Item 8 of Part II, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” and the information contained in Item 7 of Part II, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2019.
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
2019
(1)
   
2018
(2)
   
2017
 
 
2016
 
 
2015
 
FOR THE YEAR
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
  $
4,770,362
    $
4,546,653
    $
4,341,955
    $
4,220,702
    $
4,113,239
 
Gross profit
   
1,156,956
     
1,120,252
     
1,065,659
     
1,034,584
     
1,007,357
 
Operating income
   
366,884
     
372,082
     
353,874
     
345,632
     
336,748
 
Net income
   
295,775
     
296,529
     
257,290
     
235,983
     
226,524
 
Less: net income attributable to
non-controlling
interest
   
49,825
     
53,597
     
49,069
     
53,173
     
53,595
 
                                         
Net income attributable to Watsco, Inc.
  $
245,950
    $
242,932
    $
208,221
    $
182,810
    $
172,929
 
                                         
Diluted earnings per share for Common and Class B common stock
  $
6.50
    $
6.49
    $
5.81
    $
5.15
    $
4.90
 
Cash dividends per share:
   
     
     
     
     
 
Common stock
  $
6.40
    $
5.60
    $
4.60
    $
3.60
    $
2.80
 
Class B common stock
  $
6.40
    $
5.60
    $
4.60
    $
3.60
    $
2.80
 
Weighted-average Common and Class B common shares outstanding - Diluted
   
34,676
     
34,374
     
32,863
     
32,617
     
32,480
 
AT YEAR END
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
  $
2,556,161
    $
2,161,033
    $
2,046,877
    $
1,874,649
    $
1,788,442
 
Total long-term obligations
  $
311,980
    $
135,752
    $
22,085
    $
235,642
    $
245,814
 
Total shareholders’ equity
  $
1,714,767
    $
1,601,713
    $
1,550,977
    $
1,251,748
    $
1,203,721
 
Number of employees
   
5,800
     
5,200
     
5,200
     
5,050
     
4,950
 
(1) Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted the provisions of accounting guidance related to leases. Amounts prior to January 1, 2019 have not been adjusted and remain as originally reported for such periods.
(2) Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted the provisions of accounting guidance related to revenue recognition. Amounts prior to January 1, 2018 have not been adjusted and remain as originally reported for such periods.
 

Table of Contents
WATSCO, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form
10-K
contains or incorporates by reference statements that are not historical in nature and that are intended to be, and are hereby identified as, “forward-looking statements” as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Statements which are not historical in nature, including the words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “could,” “should,” “may,” “plan,” “seek,” “expect,” “believe,” “intend,” “target,” “will,” “project,” “focused,” “outlook,” “goal,” “designed,” and variations of these words and negatives thereof and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, including statements regarding, among others, (i) economic conditions, (ii) business and acquisition strategies, (iii) potential acquisitions and/or joint ventures and investments in unconsolidated entities, (iv) financing plans, and (v) industry, demographic and other trends affecting our financial condition or results of operations. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations, are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, and changes in circumstances, certain of which are beyond our control. Actual results could differ materially from these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including, but not limited to:
  general economic conditions, both in the Unites States and in the international markets we serve;
  competitive factors within the HVAC/R industry;
  effects of supplier concentration;
  fluctuations in certain commodity costs;
  consumer spending;
  consumer debt levels;
  new housing starts and completions;
  capital spending in the commercial construction market;
  access to liquidity needed for operations;
  seasonal nature of product sales;
  weather patterns and conditions;
  insurance coverage risks;
  federal, state, and local regulations impacting our industry and products;
  prevailing interest rates;
  foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations;
  international risk;
  cybersecurity risk; and
  the continued viability of our business strategy.
We believe these forward-looking statements are reasonable; however, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which are based on current expectations. For additional information regarding important factors that may affect our operations and could cause actual results to vary materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements, please see the discussion included in Item 1A “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form
10-K,
as well as the other documents and reports that we file with the SEC. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date the statements were made. We assume no obligation to update forward-looking information or the discussion of such risks and uncertainties to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions, or changes in other factors affecting forward-looking information, except as required by applicable law. We qualify any and all our forward-looking statements by these cautionary factors.
The following information should be read in conjunction with the information contained in Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and the consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, included under Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2019.
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Table of Contents
Company Overview
Watsco, Inc. was incorporated in Florida in 1956, and, together with its subsidiaries (collectively, “Watsco,” or “we,” “us,” or “our”) is the largest distributor of air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration equipment, and related parts and supplies (“HVAC/R”) in the HVAC/R distribution industry in North America. At December 31, 2019, we operated from 606 locations in 38 U.S. States, Canada, Mexico, and Puerto Rico with additional market coverage on an export basis to portions of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Revenues primarily consist of sales of air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration equipment, and related parts and supplies. Selling, general and administrative expenses primarily consist of selling expenses, the largest components of which are salaries, commissions, and marketing expenses that are variable and correlate to changes in sales. Other significant selling, general and administrative expenses relate to the operation of warehouse facilities, including a fleet of trucks and forklifts, and facility rent, a majority of which we operate under
non-cancelable
operating leases.
Sales of residential central air conditioners, heating equipment, and parts and supplies are seasonal. Furthermore, results of operations can be impacted favorably or unfavorably based on weather patterns, primarily during the Summer and Winter selling seasons. Demand related to the residential central air conditioning replacement market is typically highest in the second and third quarters, and demand for heating equipment is usually highest in the fourth quarter. Demand related to the new construction market is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year and depends largely on housing completions and weather and economic conditions.
Joint Ventures with Carrier Corporation
In 2009, we formed a joint venture with Carrier Corporation (“Carrier”), which we refer to as Carrier Enterprise I, in which Carrier contributed 95 of its company-owned locations in 13 Sun Belt states and Puerto Rico, and its export division in Miami, Florida, and we contributed 15 locations that distributed Carrier products. We have an 80% controlling interest in Carrier Enterprise I, and Carrier has a 20%
non-controlling
interest. On August 1, 2019, Carrier Enterprise I acquired substantially all of the HVAC assets and assumed certain of the liabilities of Peirce-Phelps, Inc. (“PPI”), an HVAC distributor operating from 19 locations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware.
In 2011, we formed a second joint venture with Carrier, in which Carrier contributed 28 of its company-owned locations in the Northeast U.S., and we contributed 14 locations in the Northeast U.S., and we then purchased Carrier’s distribution operations in Mexico, which included seven locations. Collectively, the Northeast locations and the Mexico operations are referred to as Carrier Enterprise II. We have an 80% controlling interest in Carrier Enterprise II, and Carrier has a 20%
non-controlling
interest. Effective May 31, 2019, we purchased an additional 20% ownership interest in Homans Associates II LLC (“Homans”) from Carrier Enterprise II, following which we owned 100% of Homans. Homans previously operated as a division of Carrier Enterprise II and now operates as one of our stand-alone-subsidiaries.
In 2012, we formed a third joint venture, which we refer to as Carrier Enterprise III, with UTC Canada Corporation, referred to as UTC Canada, an affiliate of Carrier. Carrier contributed 35 of its company-owned locations in Canada to Carrier Enterprise III. We have a 60% controlling interest in Carrier Enterprise III, and UTC Canada has a 40%
non-controlling
interest.
Critical Accounting Policies
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based upon the consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amount of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. At least quarterly, management reevaluates its judgments and estimates, which are based on historical experience, current trends, and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances.
Our significant accounting policies are discussed in Note 1 to our audited consolidated financial statements included with this Annual Report on Form
10-K.
Management believes that the following accounting policies include a higher degree of judgment and/or complexity and, thus, are considered to be critical accounting policies. Management has discussed the development and selection of critical accounting policies with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors and the Audit Committee has reviewed the disclosures relating to them.
3

Table of Contents
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
An allowance for doubtful accounts is maintained for estimated losses resulting from the inability of customers to make required payments. We typically do not require our customers to provide collateral. Accounting for doubtful accounts contains uncertainty because management must use judgment to assess the collectability of these accounts. When preparing these estimates, management considers several factors, including the aging of a customer’s account, past transactions with customers, creditworthiness of specific customers, historical trends and other information. Our business is seasonal and our customers’ businesses are also seasonal. Sales are lowest during the first and fourth quarters, and past due accounts receivable balances as a percentage of total trade receivables generally increase during these quarters. We review our accounts receivable reserve policy periodically, reflecting current risks, trends, and changes in industry conditions.
The allowance for doubtful accounts was $7.9 million and $6.5 million at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, an increase of $1.4 million. Accounts receivable balances greater than 90 days past due as a percent of accounts receivable at December 31, 2019 increased to 1.8% from 1.7% at December 31, 2018.
Although we believe the allowance for doubtful accounts is sufficient, a decline in economic conditions could lead to the deterioration in the financial condition of our customers, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments and requiring additional allowances that could materially impact our consolidated results of operations. We believe our exposure to customer credit risk is limited due to the large number of customers comprising our customer base and their dispersion across many different geographical regions. Additionally, we mitigate credit risk through credit insurance programs.
Inventory Valuation Reserves
Inventory valuation reserves are established to report inventories at the lower of cost using the weighted-average and the
first-in,
first-out
methods, or net realizable value. As part of the valuation process, inventories are adjusted to reflect excess, slow-moving, and damaged goods. The valuation process contains uncertainty because management must make estimates and use judgment to determine the future salability of inventories. Inventory policies are reviewed periodically, reflecting current risks, trends, and changes in industry conditions. A reserve for estimated inventory shrinkage is also maintained and reflects the results of cycle count programs and physical inventories. When preparing these estimates, management considers historical results, inventory levels, and current operating trends.
Valuation of Goodwill, Indefinite Lived Intangible Assets and Long-Lived Assets
The recoverability of goodwill is evaluated at least annually and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. We have one reporting unit that is subject to goodwill impairment testing. In performing the goodwill impairment test, we use a
two-step
approach. The first step compares the reporting unit’s fair value to its carrying value. If the carrying value exceeds the fair value, a second step is performed to measure the amount of impairment loss, if any. The identification and measurement of goodwill impairment involves the estimation of the fair value of our reporting unit and contains uncertainty because management must use judgment in determining appropriate assumptions to be used in the measurement of fair value. On January 1, 2020, we performed our annual evaluation of goodwill impairment and determined that the estimated fair value of our reporting unit significantly exceeded its carrying value.
The recoverability of indefinite lived intangibles and long-lived assets are also evaluated on an annual basis or more often if deemed necessary. Indefinite lived intangibles and long-lived assets not subject to amortization are assessed for impairment by comparing the fair value of the intangible asset or long-lived asset to its carrying amount to determine if a write-down to fair value is required. Our annual evaluation did not indicate any impairment of indefinite lived intangibles or long-lived assets.
The estimates of fair value of our reporting unit, indefinite lived intangibles, and long-lived assets are based on the best information available as of the date of the assessment and incorporates management’s assumptions about expected future cash flows and contemplates other valuation techniques. Future cash flows can be affected by changes in the industry, a declining economic environment, or market conditions. There have been no events or circumstances from the date of our assessments that would have had an impact on this conclusion. The carrying amounts of goodwill, intangibles, and long-lived assets were $1,009.4 million and $719.2 million at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, an increase of $290.2 million, reflecting newly acquired businesses and the adoption of new guidance on the accounting for leases (see Note 2 to our consolidated audited financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form
10-K).
Although no impairment losses have been recorded to date, there can be no assurance that impairments will not occur in the future. An adjustment to the carrying value of goodwill, intangibles, and long-lived assets could materially adversely impact the consolidated results of operations.
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Loss Contingencies
Accruals are recorded for various contingencies including self-insurance, legal proceedings, environmental matters, and other claims that arise in the normal course of business. The estimation process contains uncertainty because accruals are based on judgment, the probability of losses and, where applicable, the consideration of opinions of external legal counsel and actuarially determined estimates. Additionally, we record receivables from third party insurers when recovery has been determined to be probable.
Self-insurance reserves are maintained relative to company-wide casualty insurance and health benefit programs. The level of exposure from catastrophic events is limited by the purchase of stop-loss and aggregate liability reinsurance coverage. When estimating the self-insurance liabilities and related reserves, management considers several factors, which include historical claims experience, demographic factors, severity factors, and valuations provided by independent third-party actuaries. Management reviews its assumptions with its independent third-party actuaries to evaluate whether self-insurance reserves are adequate. If actual claims or adverse development of loss reserves occur and exceed these estimates, additional reserves may be required and could materially impact the consolidated results of operations. The estimation process contains uncertainty since management must use judgment to estimate the ultimate cost that will be incurred to settle reported claims and unreported claims for incidents incurred but not reported as of the balance sheet date. Reserves in the amounts of $3.1 million and $2.3 million at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, were established related to such insurance programs.
Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of assets and liabilities at enacted tax rates expected to be in effect when such amounts are recovered or settled. The use of estimates by management is required to determine income tax expense, deferred tax assets, and any related valuation allowance and deferred tax liabilities. A valuation allowance of $0.7 million was recorded at December 31, 2019 due to uncertainties related to the ability to utilize a portion of the deferred tax assets primarily arising from foreign net operating loss carryforwards. No valuation allowance was recorded at December 31, 2018. The valuation allowance is based on estimates of future taxable income by jurisdiction in which the deferred tax assets will be recoverable. These estimates can be affected by several factors, including changes to tax laws, or possible tax audits, or general economic conditions, or competitive pressures that could affect future taxable income. Although management believes that the estimates are reasonable, the deferred tax asset and any related valuation allowance will need to be adjusted if management’s estimates of future taxable income differ from actual taxable income. An adjustment to the deferred tax asset and any related valuation allowance could materially impact the consolidated results of operations.
New Accounting Standards
Refer to Note 1 to our audited consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form
10-K
for a discussion of recently adopted and to be adopted accounting standards.
Results of Operations
The following table summarizes information derived from our audited consolidated statements of income, expressed as a percentage of revenues, for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
 
2019
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
Revenues
   
100.0
%    
100.0
%    
100.0
%
Cost of sales
   
75.7
     
75.4
     
75.5
 
                         
Gross profit
   
24.3
     
24.6
     
24.5
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
   
16.8
     
16.7
     
16.5
 
Other income
   
0.2
     
0.2
     
0.1
 
                         
Operating income
   
7.7
     
8.2
     
8.2
 
Interest expense, net
   
0.1
     
0.1
     
0.1
 
                         
Income before income taxes
   
7.6
     
8.1
     
8.0
 
Income taxes
   
1.4
     
1.6
     
2.1
 
                         
Net income
   
6.2
     
6.5
     
5.9
 
Less: net income attributable to
non-controlling
interest
   
1.0
     
1.2
     
1.1
 
                         
Net income attributable to Watsco, Inc.
   
5.2
%    
5.3
%    
4.8
%
                         
Note: Due to rounding, percentages may not add up to 100.
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The following narratives reflect our acquisition of the HVAC distribution businesses of N&S Supply of Fishkill, Inc. (“N&S”) in November 2019, PPI in August 2019, Dunphey & Associates Supply Co., Inc. (“DASCO”) in April 2019, Alert Labs, Inc. (“Alert Labs”) in August 2018, and an additional HVAC distributor in November 2018, as well as the purchase of additional 1.8% and 1.4% ownership interests in Russell Sigler, Inc. (“RSI”) in April 2019 and June 2018, respectively, and the purchase of an additional 20% ownership interest in Homans effective May 31, 2019.
In the following narratives, computations and other information referring to “same-store basis” exclude the effects of locations closed, acquired, or locations opened, in each case during the immediately preceding 12 months, unless such locations are within close geographical proximity to existing locations. At December 31, 2019 and 2018, nine and eight locations, respectively, that we opened were near existing locations and were therefore included in “same-store basis” information.
The table below summarizes the changes in our locations for 2019 and 2018:
 
Number of
Locations
 
December 31, 2017
   
560
 
Opened
   
13
 
Acquired
   
3
 
Closed
   
(5
)
         
December 31, 2018
   
571
 
Opened
   
14
 
Acquired
   
33
 
Closed
   
(12
)
         
December 31, 2019
   
606
 
         
2019 Compared to 2018
Revenues
Revenues for 2019 increased $223.7 million, or 5%, to $4,770.4 million, including $142.8 million attributable to the new locations acquired and $13.0 million from other locations opened during the preceding 12 months, offset by $12.8 million from locations closed. Sales of HVAC equipment (68% of sales) increased 5%, sales of other HVAC products (28% of sales) increased 3% and sales of commercial refrigeration products (4% of sales) were flat. On a same-store basis, revenues increased $80.7 million, or 2%, as compared to 2018, reflecting a 3% increase in sales of HVAC equipment (68% of sales), which included a 4% increase in residential HVAC equipment, a 1% decrease in sales of other HVAC products (28% of sales), and flat sales of commercial refrigeration products (4% of sales). For residential HVAC equipment, the increase in same-store revenues was primarily due to demand for the replacement of residential HVAC equipment, a higher mix of high-efficiency air conditioning and heating systems, which sell at higher unit prices, and the realization of price increases, resulting in a 2% increase in volume and a 2% increase in the average selling price.
Gross Profit
Gross profit for 2019 increased $36.7 million, or 3%, to $1,157.0 million, primarily as a result of increased revenues. Gross profit margin declined 30 basis-points to 24.3% in 2019 versus 24.6% in 2018, due to the benefit of
mid-year
pricing actions taken by our HVAC equipment suppliers in 2018, which did not recur in 2019 along with general competitive conditions.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses for 2019 increased $42.9 million, or 6%, to $800.3 million, primarily due to newly acquired locations. Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of revenues for 2019 increased to 16.8% versus 16.7% in 2018. Selling, general and administrative expenses included $5.0 million of additional costs for 2019 in excess of 2018 for ongoing technology initiatives, driven in part by our acquisition of Alert Labs in August 2018. On a same-store basis, selling, general and administrative expenses increased 1% as compared to the same period in 2018.
Other Income
Other income of $10.3 million and $9.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, represents our share of the net income of RSI.
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Operating Income
Operating income for 2019 decreased $5.2 million, or 1%, to $366.9 million. Operating margin declined 50 basis-points to 7.7% in 2019 from 8.2% at 2018. On a same-store basis, operating margin was 7.9% in 2019 as compared to 8.2% in 2018.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net for 2019 increased $1.3 million, or 47%, to $4.0 million, primarily as a result of an increase in average outstanding borrowings, partially offset by a lower effective interest rate due to higher interest income for the 2019 period, as compared to the same period in 2018.
Income Taxes
Income taxes decreased 8% to $67.1 million and represent a composite of the income taxes attributable to our wholly owned operations and income taxes attributable to the Carrier joint ventures, which are primarily taxed as partnerships for income tax purposes; therefore, Carrier is responsible for its proportionate share of income taxes attributable to its share of earnings from these joint ventures. The effective income tax rates attributable to us were 21.2% and 22.8% for 2019 and 2018, respectively. The decrease was primarily due to lower estimated foreign withholding taxes and the refinement of estimated global intangible
low-taxed
income of foreign subsidiaries in 2019 due to the finalization of federal and state income tax regulations.
Net Income Attributable to Watsco, Inc.
Net income attributable to Watsco in 2019 increased $3.0 million, or 1%, to $246.0 million. The increase was primarily driven by higher revenues and gross profit, a reduction in income taxes, and a decrease in net income attributable to the
non-controlling
interest, partially offset by higher selling, general and administrative expenses and interest expense as discussed above.
Refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our Annual Report on Form
10-K
for the year ended December 31, 2018 for a discussion of results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the year ended December 31, 2017.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We assess our liquidity in terms of our ability to generate cash to execute our business strategy and fund operating and investing activities, taking into consideration the seasonal demand for HVAC/R products, which peaks in the months of May through August. Significant factors that could affect our liquidity include the following:
  cash needed to fund our business (primarily working capital requirements);
  borrowing capacity under our revolving credit facility;
  the ability to attract long-term capital with satisfactory terms;
  acquisitions, including joint ventures and investments in unconsolidated entities;
  dividend payments;
  capital expenditures; and
  the timing and extent of common stock repurchases.
Sources and Uses of Cash
We rely on cash flows from operations and borrowing capacity under our revolving credit agreement to fund seasonal working capital needs and for other general corporate purposes, including dividend payments (if and as declared by our Board of Directors), capital expenditures, business acquisitions, and development of our long-term operating and technology strategies. Additionally, we may also generate cash through the issuance and sale of our Common stock.
As of December 31, 2019, we had $74.5 million of cash and cash equivalents, of which $58.4 million was held by foreign subsidiaries. The repatriation of cash balances from our foreign subsidiaries could have adverse tax impacts or be subject to capital controls; however, these balances are generally available to fund the ordinary business operations of our foreign subsidiaries without legal restrictions.
We believe that our operating cash flows, cash on hand, and funds available for borrowing under our revolving credit agreement are sufficient to meet our liquidity needs in the foreseeable future. However, there can be no assurance that our current sources of available funds will be sufficient to meet our cash requirements.
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Our access to funds under our revolving credit agreement depends on the ability of the syndicate banks to meet their respective funding commitments. Disruptions in the credit and capital markets could adversely affect our ability to draw on our revolving credit agreement and may also adversely affect the determination of interest rates, particularly rates based on LIBOR, which is one of the base rates under our revolving credit agreement. LIBOR is the subject of recent proposals for reform that currently provide for the
phase-out
of LIBOR by 2021. The consequences of these developments with respect to LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted but could result in an increase in the cost of our debt, as it is currently anticipated that lenders will replace LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which may exceed what would have been the comparable LIBOR rate. Additionally, disruptions in the credit and capital markets could also result in increased borrowing costs and/or reduced borrowing capacity under our revolving credit agreement.
Working Capital
Working capital was $1,085.0 million at December 31, 2019, reflecting 33 new locations added by acquisitions in 2019, which in aggregate added $76.3 million of working capital. Excluding these new locations, working capital decreased to $1,008.7 million at December 31, 2019 from $1,084.2 million at December 31, 2018, primarily as a result of the adoption of the New Lease Standard on January 1, 2019 (see Note 2 to our consolidated audited financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form
10-K).
Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flow activity for 2019 and 2018 (in millions):
 
2019
 
 
2018
 
 
Change
 
Cash flows provided by operating activities
 
$
335.8
 
  $
170.6
    $
165.2
 
Cash flows used in investing activities
 
$
(81.0
)
  $
(26.3
)   $
(54.7
)
Cash flows used in financing activities
 
$
(264.0
)
  $
(139.6
)   $
(124.4
)
The individual items contributing to cash flow changes for the years presented are detailed in the audited consolidated statements of cash flows contained in this Annual Report on Form
10-K.
Operating Activities
The increase in net cash provided by operating activities was primarily due to the timing of payments for accounts payable and other liabilities and lower increases in inventory and accounts receivable in 2019 as compared to 2018.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was higher primarily due to cash consideration paid for acquisitions.
Financing Activities
The increase in net cash used in financing activities was primarily attributable to lower net proceeds under our revolving credit agreement, the purchase of an additional 20% ownership interest in Homans for $32.4 million and an increase in dividends paid, partially offset by $17.0 million in proceeds from the
non-controlling
interest for its contribution to the acquisition of the HVAC distribution business of PPI in 2019.
Revolving Credit Agreement
We maintain an unsecured, $500.0 million syndicated multicurrency revolving credit agreement, which we use to fund seasonal working capital needs and for other general corporate purposes, including acquisitions, dividends (if and as declared by our Board of Directors), capital expenditures, stock repurchases and issuances of letters of credit. The credit facility has a seasonal component from October 1 to March 31, during which the borrowing capacity may be reduced to $400.0 million at our discretion, and we effected such reduction during 2019. Included in the credit facility are a $100.0 million swingline subfacility, a $10.0 million letter of credit subfacility, a $75.0 million alternative currency borrowing sublimit and an $8.0 million Mexican borrowing sublimit. The credit agreement matures on December 5, 2023.
Borrowings under the credit facility bear interest at either LIBOR-based rates plus a spread, which ranges from 87.5 to 150.0 basis-points (LIBOR plus 87.5 basis-points at December 31, 2019), depending on our ratio of total debt to EBITDA, or on rates based on the highest of the Federal Funds Effective Rate plus 0.5%, the Prime Rate or the Eurocurrency Rate plus 1.0%, in each case plus a spread which ranges from 0 to 50.0 basis-points (0 basis-points at December 31, 2019), depending on our ratio of total debt to EBITDA. We pay a variable commitment fee on the unused portion of the commitment under the revolving credit agreement, ranging from 7.5 to 20.0 basis-points (7.5 basis-points at December 31, 2019).
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At December 31, 2019 and 2018, $155.7 million and $135.2 million, respectively, were outstanding under the revolving credit agreement. The revolving credit agreement contains customary affirmative and negative covenants, including financial covenants with respect to consolidated leverage and interest coverage ratios, and other customary restrictions. We believe we were in compliance with all covenants at December 31, 2019.
Contractual Obligations
The following table summarizes our significant contractual obligations at December 31, 2019.
 
Payments due by Period (in millions)
 
Contractual Obligations
 
2020
 
 
2021
 
 
2022
 
 
2023
 
 
2024
 
 
Thereafter
 
 
Total
 
Operating leases (1)
  $
76.6
    $
63.4
    $
47.4
    $
30.7
    $
15.5
    $
10.3
    $
243.9
 
Purchase obligations (2)
   
27.6
     
—  
     
—  
     
—  
     
—  
     
—  
     
27.6
 
                                                         
Total
  $
104.2
    $
63.4
    $
47.4
    $
30.7
    $
15.5
    $
10.3
    $
271.5
 
                                                         
(1)
Includes imputed interest of $21.4 million. Additional information related to operating leases can be found in Note 2 to our audited consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(2)
Purchase obligations include amounts committed under purchase orders for goods with defined terms as to price, quantity, and delivery. Purchase orders made in the ordinary course of business that are cancelable are excluded from the above table. Any amounts for which we are liable under purchase orders for goods received are reflected in Accounts Payable in our audited consolidated balance sheets and are excluded from the above table.
We have not included in the contractual obligations table above approximately $4.4 million of net liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits relating to various tax positions we have taken, the timing of which is uncertain.
Commercial obligations outstanding at December 31, 2019 under our revolving credit agreement consisted of borrowings totaling $155.7 million with revolving maturities of seven days.
Off-Balance
Sheet Arrangements
Refer to Note 16 to our audited consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form
10-K,
under the caption
“Off-Balance
Sheet Financial Instruments,” for a discussion of standby letters of credit and performance bonds for which we were contingently liable at December 31, 2019. Such discussion is incorporated herein by reference.
Purchase of Additional Ownership Interest in Joint Venture
Effective May 31, 2019, we purchased an additional 20% ownership interest in Homans from Carrier Enterprise II for cash consideration of $32.4 million, which increased our ownership in Homans to 100%. Homans previously operated as a division of Carrier Enterprise II and subsequent to the purchase operates as a stand-alone subsidiary of the Company with 16 locations in the Northeastern U.S.
Investment in Unconsolidated Entity
On June 21, 2017, Carrier Enterprise I acquired a 34.9% ownership interest in RSI, an HVAC distributor operating from 30 locations in the Western U.S. for cash consideration of $63.6 million, of which we contributed $50.9 million, and Carrier contributed $12.7 million. Effective June 29, 2018, Carrier Enterprise I acquired an additional 1.4% ownership interest in RSI, which increased Carrier Enterprise I’s ownership interest in RSI to 36.3%. Total cash consideration of $3.8 million was paid on July 5, 2018, of which we contributed $3.0 million and Carrier contributed $0.8 million. Effective April 22, 2019, Carrier Enterprise I acquired an additional 1.8% ownership interest in RSI, which increased Carrier Enterprise I’s ownership interest in RSI to 38.1% for cash consideration of $4.9 million, of which we contributed $3.9 million and Carrier contributed $1.0 million.
Carrier Enterprise I is a party to a shareholders’ agreement (the “Shareholders’ Agreement”) with RSI and its shareholders. Pursuant to the Shareholders’ Agreement, RSI’s shareholders have the right to sell, and Carrier Enterprise I has the obligation to purchase, their respective shares of RSI for a purchase price determined based on either book value or a multiple of EBIT, the latter of which Carrier Enterprise I used to calculate the price paid for its investment in RSI. RSI’s shareholders may transfer their respective shares of RSI common stock only to members of the Sigler family or to Carrier Enterprise I, and, at any time from and after the date on which Carrier Enterprise I owns 85% or more of RSI’s outstanding common stock, it has the right, but not the obligation, to purchase from RSI’s shareholders the remaining outstanding shares of RSI common stock.
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At December 31, 2019, the estimated purchase amount we would be contingently liable for was approximately $141.0 million. We believe that our operating cash flows, cash on hand, and funds available for borrowing under our revolving credit agreement will be sufficient to purchase any additional ownership interests in RSI.
Acquisitions
On November 26, 2019, one of our wholly owned subsidiaries acquired certain assets and assumed certain liabilities of N&S, a distributor of air conditioning, heating and plumbing products operating from seven locations in New York and Connecticut. The purchase price was composed of cash consideration of $12.0 million, the issuance of 22,435 shares of Common stock having a fair value of $4.0 million and the payment of certain indebtedness.
On August 1, 2019, Carrier Enterprise I acquired substantially all the HVAC assets and assumed certain of the liabilities of PPI, an HVAC distributor operating from 19 locations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, for $85.0 million less certain average revolving indebtedness. Consideration for the net purchase price consisted of $10.0 million in cash, 372,543 shares of Common stock having a fair value of $58.3 million, net of a discount for lack of marketability, and the payment of certain average revolving indebtedness. Carrier contributed cash of $17.0 million to Carrier Enterprise I in connection with the acquisition of PPI.
On April 2, 2019, one of our wholly owned subsidiaries acquired certain assets and assumed certain liabilities of DASCO, a distributor of air conditioning and heating products operating from seven locations in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut. The purchase price was composed of cash consideration of $16.8 million and the issuance of 50,952 shares of Common stock having a fair value of $6.9 million, net of a discount for lack of marketability.
On November 30, 2018, one of our wholly owned subsidiaries acquired certain assets and assumed certain liabilities of a wholesale distributor of air conditioning and heating products operating from three locations in North Carolina.
On August 23, 2018, one of our wholly owned subsidiaries acquired Alert Labs, a technology company based in Ontario, Canada for cash consideration of $5.9 million and the issuance of 23,873 shares of Common stock having a fair value of $4.0 million, net of a discount for lack of marketability, less $0.2 million related to our previously held equity interest. In addition, 23,230 shares of Common stock having a fair value of $3.0 million, net of a discount, were issued into escrow as contingent consideration, all of which are subject to certain performance metrics within a three-year measurement period.
We continually evaluate potential acquisitions and/or joint ventures and investments in unconsolidated entities. We routinely hold discussions with several acquisition candidates. Should suitable acquisition opportunities arise that would require additional financing, we believe our financial position and earnings history provide a sufficient basis for us to either obtain additional debt financing at competitive rates and on reasonable terms or raise capital through the issuance of equity securities.
Common Stock Dividends
We paid cash dividends of $6.40, $5.60 and $4.60 per share of Common stock and Class B common stock in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. On January 2, 2020, our Board of Directors declared a regular quarterly cash dividend of $1.60 per share of both Common and Class B common stock that was paid on January 31, 2020 to shareholders of record as of January 16, 2020. On February 11, 2020, our Board of Directors approved an increase to the quarterly cash dividend per share of Common and Class B common stock to $1.775 per share from $1.60 per share, beginning with the dividend that will be paid in April 2020. Future dividends and/or changes in dividend rates are at the sole discretion of the Board of Directors and depend upon factors including, but not limited to, cash flow generated by operations, profitability, financial condition, cash requirements, and future prospects.
Company Share Repurchase Program
In September 1999, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase, at management’s discretion, of up to 7,500,000 shares of common stock in the open market or via private transactions. Shares repurchased under the program are accounted for using the cost method and result in a reduction of shareholders’ equity. We last repurchased shares under this plan in 2008. In aggregate, 6,370,913 shares of Common and Class B common stock have been repurchased at a cost of $114.4 million since the inception of the program. At December 31, 2019, there were 1,129,087 shares remaining authorized for repurchase under the program.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to market risks, including fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. To manage certain of these exposures, we use derivative instruments, including forward and option contracts and swaps. We use derivative instruments as risk management tools and not for trading purposes.
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Table of Contents
Foreign Currency Exposure
We are exposed to cash flow and earnings fluctuations resulting from currency exchange rate variations. These exposures are transactional and translational in nature. The foreign currency exchange rates to which we are exposed are the Canadian dollar and Mexican peso. Revenues in these markets accounted for 6% and 3%, respectively, of our total revenues for 2019.
Our transactional exposure primarily relates to purchases by our Canadian operations in currencies other than their local currency. To mitigate the impact of currency exchange rate movements on these purchases, we use foreign currency forward contracts. By entering into these foreign currency forward contracts, we lock in exchange rates that would otherwise cause losses should the U.S. dollar strengthen and gains should the U.S. dollar weaken, in each case against the Canadian dollar. The total notional value of our foreign exchange contracts as of December 31, 2019 was $47.2 million, and such contracts have varying terms expiring through September 2020. For the year ended December 31, 2019, foreign currency transaction gains and losses did not have a material impact on our results of operations.
We have exposure related to the translation of financial statements of our Canadian operations into U.S. dollars, our functional currency. We do not currently hold any derivative contracts that hedge our foreign currency translational exposure. A 10% change in the Canadian dollar would have had an estimated $1.8 million impact to net income for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Historically, fluctuations in these exchange rates have not materially impacted our results of operations. Our exposure to currency rate fluctuations could be material in the future if these fluctuations become significant or if our Canadian and Mexican markets grow and represent a larger percentage of our total revenues.
See Note 17 to our audited consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form
10-K
for further information on our derivative instruments.
Interest Rate Exposure
Our revolving credit facility exposes us to interest rate risk because borrowings thereunder accrue interest at one or more variable interest rates. Our interest rate risk management objectives are to limit the impact of interest rate changes on earnings and cash flows and to lower overall borrowing costs. To achieve these objectives, we have historically entered into interest rate swap agreements with financial institutions that have investment grade credit ratings, thereby minimizing credit risk associated with these instruments. We do not currently hold any such swap agreements or any other derivative contracts that hedge our interest rate exposure, but we may enter into such instruments in the future.
We have evaluated our exposure to interest rates based on the amount of variable debt outstanding under our revolving credit agreement at December 31, 2019 and determined that a 100 basis-point change in interest rates would result in an impact to income before taxes of approximately $1.6 million. See Note 8 to our audited consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form
10-K
for further information about our debt.
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MANAGEMENT’S REPORT ON INTERNAL CONTROL OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules
 13a-15(f).
Our internal control system was designed to provide reasonable assurance to our management and Board of Directors regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation and fair presentation of our published consolidated financial statements.
All internal control systems, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective may not prevent or detect misstatements and can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
In accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC, we have not yet assessed the internal control over financial reporting of N&S Supply of Fishkill, Inc. (“N&S”), Peirce-Phelps, Inc. (“PPI”) or Dunphey & Associates Supply Co., Inc. (“DASCO”), which collectively represented approximately 7% of our total consolidated assets at December 31, 2019 and approximately 3% of our consolidated revenues for the twelve months ended December 31, 2019. From the respective acquisition dates of November 26, 2019, August 1, 2019 and April 2, 2019 to December 31, 2019, the processes and systems of N&S, PPI and DASCO did not impact the internal controls over financial reporting for our other consolidated subsidiaries.
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, we conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019. The assessment was based on criteria established in the framework
Internal Control —   Integrated Framework (2013)
, issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations (“COSO”) of the Treadway Commission. Based on this assessment under the COSO framework, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2019. The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019 has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report that is included herein.
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and Board of Directors
Watsco, Inc.:
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Watsco Inc. and subsidiaries’ (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, based on criteria established in
Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013)
 issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission
.
In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, based on criteria established in
Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013)
 issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2019, and related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated February 28, 2020 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.
The Company acquired N&S Supply of Fishkill, Inc. (N&S), Peirce-Phelps, Inc. (PPI) and Dunphey & Associates Supply Co., Inc. (DASCO) during 2019, and management excluded from its assessment of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, the N&S, PPI, and DASCO’s internal control over financial reporting associated with 7% of total assets and 3% total revenues included in the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2019. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting of the Company also excluded an evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting of N&S, PPI and DASCO.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
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Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
/s/ KPMG LLP
 
 
 
Miami, Florida
February 28, 2020
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and Board of Directors
Watsco, Inc.:
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Watsco, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2019, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2019, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, and our report dated February 28, 2020 expressed an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Change in Accounting Principle
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has changed its method of accounting for leases as of January 1, 2019 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update No.
 2016-02,
Leases (Topic 842), as amended.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated
financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated
financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgment. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated
financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
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Evaluation of inventory net realizable value adjustments related to excess and slow-moving inventory
As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company values its inventory at the lower of cost using weighted-average cost basis and
first-in,
first-out
methods, or net realizable value. The Company adjusts excess, slow-moving, and damaged inventory to their estimated net realizable value. As of December 31, 2019, the Company’s inventory balance was $920,786 thousand.
We identified the evaluation of inventory net realizable value adjustments related to excess and slow-moving inventory as a critical audit matter due to the amount of judgment required by the Company in making such estimates. As a result, there was a high degree of subjective auditor judgment in assessing such estimates, specifically as it related to the future salability of inventories.
The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included the following. We tested certain internal controls over the Company’s process to estimate net realizable values related to excess and slow-moving inventory. This included controls related to the future salability of inventories, assumptions used for excess and slow-moving inventory, and the Company’s review of inventory valuation adjustments. We compared a sample of inventory units to historical performance to assess possible write-down indications and future salability. We performed a sensitivity analysis under various scenarios and analyzed trends of total adjustments to net realizable values in relation to total inventory to test the Company’s determination of the inventory valuation and adjustments related to excess and slow-moving inventory.
 
/s/ KPMG LLP
 
 
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2009.
Miami, Florida
February 28, 2020
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WATSCO, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
                         
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
 
2019
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
Revenues
  $
4,770,362
   
$
4,546,653
 
  $
4,341,955
 
Cost of sales
   
3,613,406
     
3,426,401
     
3,276,296
 
                         
Gross profit
   
1,156,956
     
1,120,252